Archive for January, 2014

Cannabis during pregnancy endangers fetal brain development — ScienceDaily.

 

9 Medical Studies About the Anti-Cancer Effects of Cannabinoids on LEUKEMIA

Collected by CANNABIS CURES CANCERS!
(facebook.com/THeCureForCancers)

—————————————————–

Blood: Journal of the American Society of Hematology
July 2002

Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease

Abstract

In the current study, we examined whether ligation of CB2 receptors would lead to induction of apoptosis in tumors of immune origin and whether CB2 agonist could be used to treat such cancers.
Exposure of murine [mouse] tumors … to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vitro led to a significant reduction in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis.
Exposure of EL-4 tumor cells to the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 and the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide led to significant induction of apoptosis …
Treatment of EL-4 tumor-bearing mice with THC in vivo led to a significant reduction in tumor load, increase in tumor-cell apoptosis, and increase in survival of tumor-bearing mice. Examination of a number of human leukemia and lymphoma cell lines … revealed that they expressed CB2 receptors but not CB1.
These human tumor cells were also susceptible to apoptosis induced by THC …
Culture of primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells with THC in vitro reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis.
Together, the current data demonstrate that CB2 cannabinoid receptors expressed on malignancies of the immune system may serve as potential targets for the induction of apoptosis.
Also, because CB2 agonists lack psychotropic effects, they may serve as novel anticancer agents to selectively target and kill tumors of immune origin.

Introduction

… Cells of the immune system express high levels of CB2 receptors. …
If CB2 receptor agonists can induce apoptosis in transformed immune cells, it could lead to development of a novel class of anticancer agents.
In the current study, we investigated this possibility by using both murine and human leukemia and lymphoma lines as well as primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. …
We demonstrate that ligation of CB2 receptors can induce apoptosis in a wide range of cancers of immune-cell origin.
Furthermore, we demonstrate that THC can inhibit the growth of murine lymphoma cells in vivo by inducing apoptosis and CURE approximately 25% of the mice bearing the tumor.
Together, the current data suggest that CB2 agonists that are devoid of psychotropic effects may constitute a novel and effective modality to treat malignancies of the immune system.

http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/100/2/627.long

——————————————————-

Leukemia & Lymphoma
October 2003

γ-Irradiation Enhances Apoptosis Induced by Cannabidiol, a Non-psychotropic Cannabinoid, in Cultured HL-60 Myeloblastic Leukemia Cells

Two non-psychotropic cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidiol-dimethylheptyl (CBD-DMH), induced apoptosis in a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cell line. …
A dose dependent increase of apoptosis was noted, reaching 61 and 43% with 8 μg/ml CBD and 15 μg/ml CBD-DMH, respectively, after a 24 h treatment.
Prior exposure of the cells to γ-irradiation (800 cGy) markedly enhanced apoptosis, reaching values of 93 and 95%, respectively.
Human monocytes from normal individuals were resistant to either cannabinoids or γ-irradiation.
Caspase-3 activation was observed after the cannabinoid treatment, and may represent a mechanism for the apoptosis.
Our data suggest a possible new approach to treatment of AML.

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1042819031000103917

—————————————————-

Blood: Journal of the American Society of Hematology
February 2005

Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines: the role of the cannabinoid receptors and the MAPK pathway

Abstract

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active metabolite of cannabis.
THC causes cell death in vitro through the activation of complex signal transduction pathways.
However, the role that the cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors (CB1-R and CB2-R) play in this process is less clear.
We therefore investigated the role of the CB-Rs in mediating apoptosis in 3 leukemic cell lines … to establish further the mechanism of cell death. …
We have shown that THC is a potent inducer of apoptosis, even at 1 × IC50 (inhibitory concentration 50%) concentrations and as early as 6 hours after exposure to the drug.
These effects were seen in leukemic cell lines … as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Additionally, THC did not appear to act synergistically with cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin.
One of the most intriguing findings was that THC-induced cell death was preceded by significant changes in the expression of genes …
Both apoptosis and gene expression changes were altered independent of p53 and the CB-Rs.

http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/105/3/1214.long

——————————————————

Leukemia Research
August 2005

Targeting cannabinoid receptors to treat leukemia: Role of cross-talk between extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells

Abstract

Targeting cannabinoid receptors has recently been shown to trigger apoptosis and offers a novel treatment modality against malignancies of the immune system.
However, the precise mechanism of apoptosis in such cancers has not been previously addressed.
In this study, we used human Jurkat leukemia cell lines with defects in intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways to elucidate the mechanism of apoptosis induced by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). …
THC treatment of wild-type Jurkat cells caused cytochrome c release, and cleavage of caspase-8, -9, -2, -10, and Bid. …
Together, these data suggest that the intrinsic pathway plays a more critical role in THC-induced apoptosis while the extrinsic pathway may facilitate apoptosis via cross-talk with the intrinsic pathway.

http://www.lrjournal.com/article/S0145-2126(05)00061-5/abstract

—————————————————-

FEBS Letters (Federation of European Biochemical Societies)
September 2005

p38 MAPK is involved in CB2 receptor-induced apoptosis of human leukaemia cells

Abstract

Cannabinoids have been shown to inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of tumour cells.
However, the molecular mechanisms involved in that effect have not been completely elucidated.
Here, we investigated the possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in CB2 receptor-induced apoptosis of human leukaemia cells.
Results show that stimulation of the CB2 receptor leads to p38 MAPK activation …
These findings support a role for p38 MAPK in CB2 receptor-induced apoptosis of human leukaemia cells.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014579305010057

——————————————————–

Experimental Cell Research
July 2006

The CB2 cannabinoid receptor signals apoptosis via ceramide-dependent activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway

Abstract

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids exert pro-apoptotic actions in tumor cells via the CB2 cannabinoid receptor.
However, the molecular mechanism involved in this effect has remained elusive.
Here we used the human leukemia cell line Jurkat—that expresses CB2 as the unique CB receptor—to investigate this mechanism. …
Cannabinoid treatment led to a CB2 receptor-dependent stimulation of ceramide biosynthesis and inhibition of this pathway prevented Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced mitochondrial hypopolarization and cytochrome c release, indicating that ceramide acts at a pre-mitochondrial level. …
In summary, results presented here show that CB2 receptor activation signals apoptosis via a ceramide-dependent stimulation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014482706001066

——————————————————–

Molecular Pharmacology
September 2006

Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells: A Novel Role of Cannabidiol in the Regulation of p22phox and Nox4 Expression

Abstract

In the current study, we examined the effects of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, on the induction of apoptosis in leukemia cells.
Exposure of leukemia cells to cannabidiol led to cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2)-mediated reduction in cell viability and induction in apoptosis.
Furthermore, cannabidiol treatment led to a significant decrease in tumor burden and an increase in apoptotic tumors in vivo. …
The role of the mitochondria was further suggested as exposure to cannabidiol led to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c.
It is noteworthy that cannabidiol exposure led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production …
Together, the results from this study reveal that cannabidiol … may be a novel and highly selective treatment for leukemia.

http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/70/3/897.long

————————————————-

Anticancer Research
October 2013

Enhancing the Activity of Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids In Vitro Through Modifications to Drug Combinations and Treatment Schedules

Abstract

Cannabinoids are the bioactive components of the Cannabis plant that display a diverse range of therapeutic qualities. We explored the activity of six cannabinoids, used both alone and in combination in leukaemic cells.
Cannabinoids were cytostatic and caused a simultaneous arrest at all phases of the cell cycle.
Re-culturing pre-treated cells in drug-free medium resulted in dramatic reductions in cell viability. …
We suggest that the activities of some cannabinoids are influenced by treatment schedules; therefore, it is important to carefully select the most appropriate strategy in order to maximise their efficacy.

http://ar.iiarjournals.org/content/33/10/4373.abstract

————————————————-

Case Reports in Oncology
November 28, 2013

Cannabis Extract Treatment for Terminal Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with a Philadelphia Chromosome Mutation

Abstract

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the white blood cells and is typically well treated with combination chemotherapy, with a remission state after 5 years of 94% in children and 30-40% in adults.
To establish how aggressive the disease is, further chromosome testing is required to determine whether the cancer is myeloblastic and involves neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils, or lymphoblastic involving B or T lymphocytes.
This case study is on a 14-year-old patient diagnosed with a very aggressive form of ALL (positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation).
A standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months.
Without any other solutions provided by conventional approaches aside from palliation, the family administered cannabinoid extracts orally to the patient.
Cannabinoid resin extract is used as an effective treatment for ALL with a positive Philadelphia chromosome mutation and indications of dose-dependent disease control.
The clinical observation in this study revealed a rapid dose-dependent correlation.

http://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/356446

———————————————

Photo via MARIJUANADoctors.com

9 Medical Studies About the Anti-Cancer Effects of Cannabinoids on LEUKEMIA

Collected by CANNABIS CURES CANCERS!
(facebook.com/THeCureForCancers)

-----------------------------------------------------

Blood: Journal of the American Society of Hematology
July 2002

Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease

Abstract

In the current study, we examined whether ligation of CB2 receptors would lead to induction of apoptosis in tumors of immune origin and whether CB2 agonist could be used to treat such cancers. 
Exposure of murine [mouse] tumors ... to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vitro led to a significant reduction in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis. 
Exposure of EL-4 tumor cells to the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 and the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide led to significant induction of apoptosis ... 
Treatment of EL-4 tumor-bearing mice with THC in vivo led to a significant reduction in tumor load, increase in tumor-cell apoptosis, and increase in survival of tumor-bearing mice. Examination of a number of human leukemia and lymphoma cell lines ... revealed that they expressed CB2 receptors but not CB1. 
These human tumor cells were also susceptible to apoptosis induced by THC ... 
Culture of primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells with THC in vitro reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis. 
Together, the current data demonstrate that CB2 cannabinoid receptors expressed on malignancies of the immune system may serve as potential targets for the induction of apoptosis. 
Also, because CB2 agonists lack psychotropic effects, they may serve as novel anticancer agents to selectively target and kill tumors of immune origin.

Introduction

... Cells of the immune system express high levels of CB2 receptors. ...
If CB2 receptor agonists can induce apoptosis in transformed immune cells, it could lead to development of a novel class of anticancer agents. 
In the current study, we investigated this possibility by using both murine and human leukemia and lymphoma lines as well as primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. ...
We demonstrate that ligation of CB2 receptors can induce apoptosis in a wide range of cancers of immune-cell origin. 
Furthermore, we demonstrate that THC can inhibit the growth of murine lymphoma cells in vivo by inducing apoptosis and CURE approximately 25% of the mice bearing the tumor. 
Together, the current data suggest that CB2 agonists that are devoid of psychotropic effects may constitute a novel and effective modality to treat malignancies of the immune system.

http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/100/2/627.long

-------------------------------------------------------

Leukemia & Lymphoma
October 2003

γ-Irradiation Enhances Apoptosis Induced by Cannabidiol, a Non-psychotropic Cannabinoid, in Cultured HL-60 Myeloblastic Leukemia Cells

Two non-psychotropic cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidiol-dimethylheptyl (CBD-DMH), induced apoptosis in a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cell line. ...
A dose dependent increase of apoptosis was noted, reaching 61 and 43% with 8 μg/ml CBD and 15 μg/ml CBD-DMH, respectively, after a 24 h treatment. 
Prior exposure of the cells to γ-irradiation (800 cGy) markedly enhanced apoptosis, reaching values of 93 and 95%, respectively. 
Human monocytes from normal individuals were resistant to either cannabinoids or γ-irradiation. 
Caspase-3 activation was observed after the cannabinoid treatment, and may represent a mechanism for the apoptosis.
Our data suggest a possible new approach to treatment of AML.

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1042819031000103917

----------------------------------------------------

Blood: Journal of the American Society of Hematology
February 2005

Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines: the role of the cannabinoid receptors and the MAPK pathway

Abstract 

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active metabolite of cannabis. 
THC causes cell death in vitro through the activation of complex signal transduction pathways. 
However, the role that the cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors (CB1-R and CB2-R) play in this process is less clear. 
We therefore investigated the role of the CB-Rs in mediating apoptosis in 3 leukemic cell lines ... to establish further the mechanism of cell death. ... 
We have shown that THC is a potent inducer of apoptosis, even at 1 × IC50 (inhibitory concentration 50%) concentrations and as early as 6 hours after exposure to the drug.
These effects were seen in leukemic cell lines ... as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. 
Additionally, THC did not appear to act synergistically with cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. 
One of the most intriguing findings was that THC-induced cell death was preceded by significant changes in the expression of genes ... 
Both apoptosis and gene expression changes were altered independent of p53 and the CB-Rs.

http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/105/3/1214.long

------------------------------------------------------

Leukemia Research
August 2005

Targeting cannabinoid receptors to treat leukemia: Role of cross-talk between extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells

Abstract 

Targeting cannabinoid receptors has recently been shown to trigger apoptosis and offers a novel treatment modality against malignancies of the immune system. 
However, the precise mechanism of apoptosis in such cancers has not been previously addressed. 
In this study, we used human Jurkat leukemia cell lines with defects in intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways to elucidate the mechanism of apoptosis induced by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). ... 
THC treatment of wild-type Jurkat cells caused cytochrome c release, and cleavage of caspase-8, -9, -2, -10, and Bid. ... 
Together, these data suggest that the intrinsic pathway plays a more critical role in THC-induced apoptosis while the extrinsic pathway may facilitate apoptosis via cross-talk with the intrinsic pathway.

http://www.lrjournal.com/article/S0145-2126(05)00061-5/abstract

----------------------------------------------------

FEBS Letters (Federation of European Biochemical Societies)
September 2005

p38 MAPK is involved in CB2 receptor-induced apoptosis of human leukaemia cells

Abstract

Cannabinoids have been shown to inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of tumour cells. 
However, the molecular mechanisms involved in that effect have not been completely elucidated. 
Here, we investigated the possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in CB2 receptor-induced apoptosis of human leukaemia cells. 
Results show that stimulation of the CB2 receptor leads to p38 MAPK activation ...
These findings support a role for p38 MAPK in CB2 receptor-induced apoptosis of human leukaemia cells.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014579305010057

--------------------------------------------------------

Experimental Cell Research
July 2006

The CB2 cannabinoid receptor signals apoptosis via ceramide-dependent activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway

Abstract 

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids exert pro-apoptotic actions in tumor cells via the CB2 cannabinoid receptor. 
However, the molecular mechanism involved in this effect has remained elusive. 
Here we used the human leukemia cell line Jurkat—that expresses CB2 as the unique CB receptor—to investigate this mechanism. ...
Cannabinoid treatment led to a CB2 receptor-dependent stimulation of ceramide biosynthesis and inhibition of this pathway prevented Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced mitochondrial hypopolarization and cytochrome c release, indicating that ceramide acts at a pre-mitochondrial level. ...
In summary, results presented here show that CB2 receptor activation signals apoptosis via a ceramide-dependent stimulation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014482706001066

--------------------------------------------------------

Molecular Pharmacology
September 2006

Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells: A Novel Role of Cannabidiol in the Regulation of p22phox and Nox4 Expression

Abstract 

In the current study, we examined the effects of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, on the induction of apoptosis in leukemia cells. 
Exposure of leukemia cells to cannabidiol led to cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2)-mediated reduction in cell viability and induction in apoptosis. 
Furthermore, cannabidiol treatment led to a significant decrease in tumor burden and an increase in apoptotic tumors in vivo. ...
The role of the mitochondria was further suggested as exposure to cannabidiol led to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c. 
It is noteworthy that cannabidiol exposure led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production ...
Together, the results from this study reveal that cannabidiol ... may be a novel and highly selective treatment for leukemia.

http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/70/3/897.long

-------------------------------------------------

Anticancer Research
October 2013

Enhancing the Activity of Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids In Vitro Through Modifications to Drug Combinations and Treatment Schedules

Abstract

Cannabinoids are the bioactive components of the Cannabis plant that display a diverse range of therapeutic qualities. We explored the activity of six cannabinoids, used both alone and in combination in leukaemic cells. 
Cannabinoids were cytostatic and caused a simultaneous arrest at all phases of the cell cycle. 
Re-culturing pre-treated cells in drug-free medium resulted in dramatic reductions in cell viability. ...
We suggest that the activities of some cannabinoids are influenced by treatment schedules; therefore, it is important to carefully select the most appropriate strategy in order to maximise their efficacy.

http://ar.iiarjournals.org/content/33/10/4373.abstract

-------------------------------------------------

Case Reports in Oncology
November 28, 2013 

Cannabis Extract Treatment for Terminal Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with a Philadelphia Chromosome Mutation

Abstract

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the white blood cells and is typically well treated with combination chemotherapy, with a remission state after 5 years of 94% in children and 30-40% in adults. 
To establish how aggressive the disease is, further chromosome testing is required to determine whether the cancer is myeloblastic and involves neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils, or lymphoblastic involving B or T lymphocytes. 
This case study is on a 14-year-old patient diagnosed with a very aggressive form of ALL (positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation). 
A standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months.
Without any other solutions provided by conventional approaches aside from palliation, the family administered cannabinoid extracts orally to the patient. 
Cannabinoid resin extract is used as an effective treatment for ALL with a positive Philadelphia chromosome mutation and indications of dose-dependent disease control. 
The clinical observation in this study revealed a rapid dose-dependent correlation.

http://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/356446

---------------------------------------------

Photo via @[248487496842:274:MARIJUANADoctors.com]

NRA-ILA | California’s Microstamping Requirement Bans Sale of Improved Pistols – Dealers Face Shortage of Handguns Approved For Sale.

Microstamping can be defeated in seconds with a 5¢ emery board (nail file), so it is clear what this deceptive California law was all about.  And, I wonder how many drug gangs, robbers, rapists, and other criminals will comply with this stupid law.  Read more about it below.  NOTE– a radio program will be discussing this on SUNDAY, JANUARY 27th:

CCRKBA

GOTTLIEB, GUN COMPANIES ON ‘GUN TALK’ SUNDAY
TO DISCUSS CAL. HANDGUN ROSTER FIASCO
BELLEVUE, WA – Alan Gottlieb, chairman of the Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms and founder of the Second Amendment Foundation will appear this Sunday, Jan. 26 on the nationally-syndicated “Gun Talk” with Tom Gresham to discuss the controversy surrounding California’s microstamping law that now has major gun companies essentially dropping off of the state’s approved handgun roster.

Also joining Gresham during his Sunday program, which airs at 2 p.m. (Eastern) and 11 a.m. (Pacific), will be Ruger CEO Mike Fifer and Smith & Wesson Director of Marketing Paul Pluff. For a listing of local radio stations where the program may be heard, visit guntalk.com.

According to Gresham, it is Fifer’s prediction that “within a year or two, they’re (semi-auto handguns) all gone. Everything’s off the list.”

Gottlieb noted that SAF is currently involved in a lawsuit challenging the California law, signed in 2009, and the regulatory scheme that arbitrarily bans handguns based on a roster of “certified” handguns approved by the State.

“This statutory requirement is unworkable and firearms manufacturers are saying so in no uncertain terms,” Gottlieb noted. “California citizens are facing a Second Amendment outrage because of this ridiculous roster, and a technology requirement that has no demonstrable value in crime prevention or firearm safety.”

The controversy erupted this week after Ruger announced that, “We are working hard to serve our customers in California and will do all we can to fight this draconian law. We continue to submit pistols to the independent test lab for testing and those pistols meet all the requirements of California in effect when the pistols first appeared on the Roster, i.e., everything except microstamping. We have been informed by the lab that the CA DOJ will not even consider these “new” pistols for inclusion on the Roster unless they satisfy the microstamping regulations, which numerous studies have found unworkable. Until microstamping is repealed, we expect that Ruger pistols – some of the safest available – will continue to be forced off the Roster.”

That was followed by Smith & Wesson’s declaration that, “Smith & Wesson does not and will not include microstamping in its firearms. A number of studies have indicated that microstamping is unreliable, serves no safety purpose, is cost prohibitive and, most importantly, is not proven to aid in preventing or solving crimes. The microstamping mandate and the company’s unwillingness to adopt this so-called technology will result in a diminishing number of Smith & Wesson semi-automatic pistols available for purchase by California residents.”

Compound found in marijuana shown to \’turn off\’ cancer.

 

Everything You Didn\’t Know About Legalizing Marijuana | High Times.

 

Nancy Grace: People on pot shoot each other, strangle each other, and kill whole families | The Raw Story.

Amazing that some morons still think this way.  Just incredible!  Do they live under rocks?

Marijuana Legalization Bill To Be Introduced In Maryland.